UltraTek Anti-Maus

Polyclonal anti-immunoglobulin G (anti-IgG) secondary antibodies are indispensable tools for many molecular biology techniques and diagnostic tests. However, their animal production is a major ethical problem. Here we present a sustainable alternative, namely nanobodies against all mouse IgG subclasses and rabbit IgG. They can be produced on a large scale in  Escherichia coli and could make secondary antibody production in animals obsolete. Their recombinant nature allows for fusion with affinity tags or reporter enzymes, as well as efficient maleimide chemistry for fluorophore coupling. 

We demonstrate their superior performance in Western blotting in both peroxidase- and fluorophore-bound forms. Their site-specific labeling with multiple fluorophores creates bright imaging reagents for confocal and high-resolution microscopy with much less label shift than traditional secondary antibodies. They also allow for simpler and faster immunostaining protocols and enable multi-target localization using primary IgGs of the same species and class.

introduction

Mouse and rabbit antibodies are fundamental tools for many basic research techniques and medical diagnostic assays. These primary antibodies are usually detected or immobilized indirectly via polyclonal anti-IgG secondary antibodies.

  •  The need for a continuous supply of anti-IgG sera necessitates the maintenance, immunization, exsanguination and ultimately culling of large numbers of goats, sheep, rabbits and donkeys, which is not only costly but also poses a major welfare and ethical issue (Shen, 2013; Reardon, 2016). 
  • In addition, each new batch of serum contains another heterogeneous mixture of antibodies that have to be affinity-purified on IgG columns and then freed (by pre-adsorption) of non-specific and cross-reacting antibodies. In addition, the success of this process must be quality checked each time. 
  • The large size of secondary antibodies (∼10–15 nm; 150 kD) is also a disadvantage as it limits tissue penetration and introduces considerable label displacement, reducing the image resolution achievable by super-resolution fluorescence microscopy methods (Ries et al., 2012; Szymborska et al., 2013; Pleiner et al., 2015). Furthermore, their non-recombinant nature precludes genetic engineering (tagging or fusion with reporter enzymes).
  • Why then have recombinant anti-IgG detection reagents not replaced secondary polyclonal antibodies? The main problem is the signal strength. For example, the signal in traditional immunofluorescence is enhanced by (a) multiple secondary IgG molecules binding to different epitopes of a primary antibody; (b) a large IgG that tolerates many labels per molecule; and (c) their bivalent binding mode, which exploits avidity for high-affinity target recognition. Given these facts, it seems very challenging to achieve comparable signal levels with a small, monovalent, monoclonal reagent.

We considered nanobodies, single domain antibodies derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies (Hamers-Casterman et al., 1993; Arbabi Ghahroudi et al., 1997; Muyldermans, 2013), as perhaps the best candidates for such reagents. 

Because of their small size (∼3 × 4 nm; 13 kD), possibility of their renewable production as recombinant fusion proteins, and favorable biophysical properties, nanobodies have attracted considerable attention as powerful tools in cell biology ( Helma et al., 2015 ) and structural biology (Desmyter et al., 2015) and as future therapeutics (  Van Bockstaele et al., 2009; Kijanka et al., 2015). ). They are particularly useful for high-resolution imaging(Ries et al., 2012; Szymborska et al., 2013; Pleiner et al., 2015; Göttfert et al., 2017; Traenkle and Rothbauer, 2017).

The resolving power of some of the best microscopes reported so far (e.g. ∼6 nm by Balzarotti et al. [2017] ; ∼10–20 nm by Xu et al. [2012] or Huang et al. [2016]) can be seen as a result of the offset between fluorescent label and target introduced by primary and secondary antibodies (20-30 nm). Site-specifically labeled nanobodies represent a promising solution to this problem, as they can place fluorophores closer than 2 nm to their antigen and, despite their small size, even tolerate up to three dyes (Pleiner et al., 2015).

In this study, we describe the generation of a comprehensive toolbox of nanobodies against all mouse IgG subclasses and rabbit IgG. This work required very extensive optimizations to our routine nanobody selection efforts, such as B. a time-extended and thus affinity-enhancing immunization scheme, subsequent affinity maturation including off-rate selections, and testing and improvement of approximately 200 initial candidates. When site-specifically labeled with fluorophores, the resulting nanobodies performed remarkably well in Western blotting and immunofluorescence. In contrast to polyclonal secondary antibodies, they even enable multicolored labeling and colocalization in one step. 

UltraTek Anti-Mouse

ABJ008 ScyTek Laboratories 8 ml 24.43 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Mouse

ABJ015 ScyTek Laboratories 15 ml 38.59 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Mouse

ABJ125 ScyTek Laboratories 125 ml 142.72 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Mouse

ABJ500 ScyTek Laboratories 500 ml 405 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Mouse

ABJ999 ScyTek Laboratories 1000 ml 709.7 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Goat

AGL008 ScyTek Laboratories 8 ml 23.13 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Goat

AGL015 ScyTek Laboratories 15 ml 37.28 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Goat

AGL125 ScyTek Laboratories 125 ml 127.28 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Goat

AGL250 ScyTek Laboratories 250 ml 245.58 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Rabbit

ABK008 ScyTek Laboratories 8 ml 24.43 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Rabbit

ABK015 ScyTek Laboratories 15 ml 38.59 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Rabbit

ABK125 ScyTek Laboratories 125 ml 142.72 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Rabbit

ABK500 ScyTek Laboratories 500 ml 405 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Rabbit

ABK999 ScyTek Laboratories 1000 ml 709.7 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Polyvalent

ABN008 ScyTek Laboratories 8 ml 38.59 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Polyvalent

ABN015 ScyTek Laboratories 15 ml 57.84 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Polyvalent

ABN125 ScyTek Laboratories 125 ml 280.28 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Polyvalent

ABN500 ScyTek Laboratories 500 ml 926.99 EUR

UltraTek Anti-Polyvalent

ABN999 ScyTek Laboratories 1000 ml 1592.98 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Mouse Lab Pack

UHM125 ScyTek Laboratories 1250 Slides 282.85 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Mouse Lab Pack

UHM500 ScyTek Laboratories 5000 Slides 789.41 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Mouse Lab Pack

UHM999 ScyTek Laboratories 10000 Slides 1369.26 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Mouse Staining System

AFJ600 ScyTek Laboratories 500 Slides 187.71 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Mouse Lab Pack

UAM125 ScyTek Laboratories 1250 Slides 343.3 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Mouse Lab Pack

UAM500 ScyTek Laboratories 5000 Slides 1115.97 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Mouse Lab Pack

UAM999 ScyTek Laboratories 10000 Slides 2084.11 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Mouse (DAB) Staining System

AKA080 ScyTek Laboratories 70 Slides 61.72 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Mouse (AEC) Staining System

AKB080 ScyTek Laboratories 70 Slides 61.72 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Rabbit Lab Pack

UHR125 ScyTek Laboratories 1250 Slides 282.85 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Rabbit Lab Pack

UHR500 ScyTek Laboratories 5000 Slides 789.41 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Rabbit Lab Pack

UHR999 ScyTek Laboratories 10000 Slides 1369.26 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Mouse Staining System

AFL600 ScyTek Laboratories 500 Slides 187.71 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Polyvalent Lab Pack

UHP125 ScyTek Laboratories 1250 Slides 378.5 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Polyvalent Lab Pack

UHP500 ScyTek Laboratories 5000 Slides 985.29 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Polyvalent Lab Pack

UHP999 ScyTek Laboratories 10000 Slides 1886.49 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Rabbit Staining System

AFK600 ScyTek Laboratories 500 Slides 187.71 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Rabbit Lab Pack

UAR125 ScyTek Laboratories 1250 Slides 343.3 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Rabbit Lab Pack

UAR500 ScyTek Laboratories 5000 Slides 1115.97 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Rabbit Lab Pack

UAR999 ScyTek Laboratories 10000 Slides 2084.11 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Polyvalent Staining System

AFN600 ScyTek Laboratories 500 Slides 187.71 EUR

UltraTek Alkaline Phosphatase

ABM500 ScyTek Laboratories 500 ml 959.13 EUR

UltraTek Alkaline Phosphatase

ABM999 ScyTek Laboratories 1000 ml 1668.83 EUR

UltraTek Alkaline Phosphatase

ABM008 ScyTek Laboratories 8 ml 47.58 EUR

UltraTek Alkaline Phosphatase

ABM015 ScyTek Laboratories 15 ml 78.42 EUR

UltraTek Alkaline Phosphatase

ABM125 ScyTek Laboratories 125 ml 296.99 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Rabbit (DAB) Staining System

AKC080 ScyTek Laboratories 70 Slides 61.72 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Rabbit (AEC) Staining System

AKD080 ScyTek Laboratories 70 Slides 61.72 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Polyvalent Lab Pack

UAP125 ScyTek Laboratories 1250 Slides 536.15 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Polyvalent Lab Pack

UAP500 ScyTek Laboratories 5000 Slides 1637.97 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Polyvalent Lab Pack

UAP999 ScyTek Laboratories 10000 Slides 3052.22 EUR

UltraTek Horseradish Peroxidase

ABL008 ScyTek Laboratories 8 ml 24.43 EUR

UltraTek Horseradish Peroxidase

ABL015 ScyTek Laboratories 15 ml 38.59 EUR

UltraTek Horseradish Peroxidase

ABL125 ScyTek Laboratories 125 ml 142.72 EUR

UltraTek Horseradish Peroxidase

ABL500 ScyTek Laboratories 500 ml 405 EUR

UltraTek Horseradish Peroxidase

ABL999 ScyTek Laboratories 1000 ml 709.7 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Rabbit Staining System

AFM600 ScyTek Laboratories 500 Slides 187.71 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Polyvalent (DAB) Staining System

AMF080 ScyTek Laboratories 70 Slides 70.71 EUR

UltraTek HRP Anti-Polyvalent (AEC) Staining System

AMG080 ScyTek Laboratories 70 Slides 70.71 EUR

UltraTek Complete System; Anti-Polyvalent, HRP, DAB

UCS015 ScyTek Laboratories 1 kit(s) 90.5 EUR

UltraTek Complete System; Anti-Polyvalent, HRP, DAB

UCS125 ScyTek Laboratories 1 kit(s) 430.82 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Polyvalent Staining System

AFP600 ScyTek Laboratories 500 Slides 187.71 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Mouse (Permanent Red) Staining System

AET080 ScyTek Laboratories 70 Slides 70.71 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Rabbit (Permanent Red) Staining System

AME080 ScyTek Laboratories 70 Slides 61.72 EUR

UltraTek Alk-Phos Anti-Polyvalent (Permanent Red) Staining System

AMH080 ScyTek Laboratories 70 Slides 70.71 EUR

BSA, ULTRATECH GRADE, LYOPHILIZED, 100 G

7500806-100G Lampire Biologicals Laboratories 1G 254.5 EUR

BSA, ULTRATECH GRADE, LYOPHILIZED, 10 G

7500806-10G Lampire Biologicals Laboratories 1G 96.38 EUR

BSA, ULTRATECH GRADE, LYOPHILIZED, 1 KG

7500806-1KG Lampire Biologicals Laboratories 1KG 1068.54 EUR

BSA, ULTRATECH GRADE, LYOPHILIZED, 50 G

7500806-50G Lampire Biologicals Laboratories 1G 184.22 EUR

UltraPolymer Goat Anti-Rabbit/Mouse IgG (H&L) HRP Cocktail

A1280-15 Biovision each 385.2 EUR

UltraPolymer Goat Anti-Rabbit/Mouse IgG (H&L) HRP Cocktail

A1280-5 Biovision each 196.8 EUR

IKA ULTRA-TURRAX tube drive - EACH

MIL2160 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 1046.25 EUR

Mouse IgG (H + L) Ultra Pure

31R-1041 Fitzgerald 1 mg 117 EUR

UltraPolymer Goat Anti-Mouse IgG (H&L) HRP

A1275-15 Biovision each 385.2 EUR

UltraPolymer Goat Anti-Mouse IgG (H&L) HRP

A1275-5 Biovision each 196.8 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q2100AR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 1100 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q2100AR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 1200 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q2100AR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 895 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q2100AR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 1200 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q210AR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 140 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q210AR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 135 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q210AR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 125 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q210AR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 165 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q225AR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 325 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q225AR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 220 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q225AR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 330 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q225AR4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 320 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q250AR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 600 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q250AR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 460 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q250AR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 630 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Gold, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q250AR4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 500 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q3100AR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 1100 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q3100AR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 1200 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q3100AR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 895 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q3100AR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 1200 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q310AR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 140 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q310AR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 135 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q310AR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 125 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q310AR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 165 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q325AR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 320 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q325AR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 325 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q325AR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 220 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q325AR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 330 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q350AR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 500 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q350AR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 600 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q350AR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 460 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Gold, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q350AR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 630 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q4100AR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 1100 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q4100AR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 1200 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q4100AR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 895 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q4100AR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 1200 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q410AR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 140 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q410AR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 135 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q410AR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 125 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q410AR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 165 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q425AR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 320 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q425AR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 325 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q425AR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 220 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q425AR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 330 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q450AR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 500 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q450AR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 600 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q450AR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 460 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Gold, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q450AR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 630 EUR

Carbon London Finder Grids, Au, LF135, Ultra-Thin

M-CFLF135-AU-UL MiTeGen - 183 EUR

IKA ULTRA-TURRAX tube drive workstation - EACH

MIL2158 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 1046.25 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q2100CR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 895 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q2100CR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 780 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q2100CR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 975 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q2100CR4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 750 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q210CR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 98 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q210CR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 98 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q210CR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 110 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q210CR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 130 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q225CR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 262 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q225CR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 225 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q225CR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 260 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q225CR4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 228 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q250CR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 420 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q250CR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 375 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q250CR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 495 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 200 Mesh, Copper, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q250CR4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 450 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q3100CR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 895 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q3100CR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 895 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q3100CR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 780 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q3100CR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 975 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q310CR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 98 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q310CR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 98 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q310CR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 110 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q310CR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 130 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q325CR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 228 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q325CR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 262 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q325CR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 225 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q325CR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 260 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q350CR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 450 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q350CR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 420 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q350CR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 375 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 300 Mesh, Copper, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q350CR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 495 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Copper, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q4100CR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 895 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Copper, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q4100CR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 895 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Copper, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q4100CR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 780 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Copper, 100/pk

M-CEM-Q4100CR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 975 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Copper, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q410CR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 98 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Copper, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q410CR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 98 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Copper, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q410CR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 110 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Copper, 10/pk

M-CEM-Q410CR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 130 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Copper, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q425CR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 228 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/1 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Copper, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q425CR1-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 262 EUR

Quantifoil R 1.2/1.3 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Copper, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q425CR1.3-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 225 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/2 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Copper, 25/pk

M-CEM-Q425CR2-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 260 EUR

Quantifoil R 2/4 with Ultrathin Carbon (2 nm), 400 Mesh, Copper, 50/pk

M-CEM-Q450CR-4-2nm MiTeGen 1 Grid 450 EUR

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In stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM; Rust et al., 2006) of microtubules, an anti-mouse κ-light chain nanobody showed greatly reduced fluorophore offset distances, suggesting its use as a superior alternative to traditional anti-mouse secondary antibodies suggests. Furthermore, we show that anti-IgG nanobodies conjugated to HRP or expressed as fusions with ascorbate peroxidase (APEX2; Lam et al., 2015) and thus can be used for enhanced chemiluminescence Western blotting, colorimetric ELISAs, or immuno-EM detection be able. These monoclonal recombinant nanobodies are therefore a perfect replacement for conventional polyclonal secondary antibodies of animal origin. We imagine that they can be constructed in such a way

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